Practices that show evidence of effectiveness in improving public health outcomes when implemented in multiple real-life settings, as indicated by achievement of aims consistent with the objectives of the activities.

Racial disparities in influenza immunization during pregnancy in the United States: A narrative review of the evidence for disparities and potential interventions

Callahan, A. G., Coleman-Cowger, V. H., Schulkin, J., Power, M. L.

Release Date:

Peer Review Study

Healthcare Access and Quality
Tools Included
Outside U.S.

Data Collection and Reporting

This review summarized existing data on racial disparities in maternal immunization for influenza in the U.S. and reviewed the literature on interventions to improve the uptake of the influenza vaccine among Black pregnant women. U.S. survey data on maternal influenza immunization by racial and ethnic group were summarized in narrative form. The study found that a decade of survey data show that Black women in the U.S. consistently have the lowest rate of influenza immunization in pregnancy. Black women report a lower rate of being recommended or offered the vaccine, and provider recommendation is associated with greater vaccine uptake. Intervention studies to increase influenza immunization among Black pregnant women have reported mixed results. Successful interventions include multicomponent practice-based interventions, group prenatal care, and culturally competent patient educational messages.

Resource Details

Outcomes of Interest

Advancing Racial Equity

Priority Population(s)

Pregnant Women/Pregnant Persons

Setting(s) of Implementation

Geographic Area of Implementation

Implementation Period