Practices that show potential to achieve desirable public health outcomes in a specific real-life setting and produce early results that are consistent with the objectives of the activities and thus indicate effectiveness.

COVID-19 Deaths in the United States: Shifts in Hot Spots Over the Three Phases of the Pandemic and the Spatiotemporally Varying Impact of Pandemic Vulnerability

Park, Y. M., Kearney, G. D., Wall, B., Jones, K., Howard, R. J., Hylock, R.H.

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Peer Review Study

Data Collection and Analysis
Neighborhood and Built Environment
Tools Included
Outside U.S.

Data Collection and Reporting

This study investigated the spatiotemporal trends and geographic disparities in COVID-19 mortality from March 1, 2020, to May 31, 2021, by identifying emerging hot and cold spots of death rates over three phases of the pandemic (first wave, second wave, post-vaccination). Results showed hot spots shifting over three phases of the pandemic from densely populated cities to states with looser social distancing regulations and low vaccination rates.

Resource Details

Outcomes of Interest

Improve Data Infrastructure

Priority Population(s)

Setting(s) of Implementation


Geographic Area of Implementation

Implementation Period